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Nubia was also called - Upper & Lower Nubia, Kush, Land of Kush, Te-Nehesy, Nubadae, Napata, or the Kingdom of Meroe. Nubia is divided into three regions: Lower Nubia, Upper Nubia, and Southern Nubia. Lower Nubia was in modern southern Egypt, which lies between the first and second cataract. Upper Nubia and Southern Nubia were in modern-day northern Sudan, between the second cataract and sixth cataracts of the Nile River (largest river in the world). Lower Nubia and Upper Nubia are so called because the Nile flows north, so Upper Nubia was further upstream and of higher elevation, even though it lies geographically south of Lower Nubia.
The Aswan High Dam (1970), which flooded important Nubian regions in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. The Aswan High Dam created a 340-mile long lake, which flooded 39 Nubian villages displacing around 120,000 indigenous peoples, and submerged innumerable priceless artifacts. The Meroe Dam (2008) in northern Sudan flooded more than 2,500 Ancient Kushite archaeological sites and displaced 50-70 thousand Amri and Manasir indigenous peoples, and many of these families and farmers have never been compensated for their loss of land and livelihood. "By flooding the last of the remaining indigenous Nubian lands...the indigenous Nubians have been reduced from Black Pharaohs to a group of people with a limited sense of memory of the past and a bleak future." The effected indigenous communities of Nubian voices should be respected in this matter and have since been recognized and protected under the UNDRIP. 


The Imperial Kingdom of Nubia is considered by many historians and archeologists to be the cradle of civilization. The Nubians were known to be expert archers and thus their land earned the appellation, “Ta-Seti”, or land of the Bow (Bow and Arrow). Today the term Nubian has become inclusive of Africans, African Arabs and indigenous peoples of color (melaninated) in general. The history of the Nubians are closely linked with that of Ancient Egypt. In 2300 B.C. (Before Christ), Nubia was first mentioned as the Old Kingdom by the Ancient Anglo-Egyptians accounts of trade missions. The Ancient Anglo-Egyptian called “Hyksos or Tamahou” (pale skinned people) invaded and conquered Nubian territory incorporating them into its provinces. From Aswan, right above the First Cataract, southern limit of Egyptian control at the time. Post the Nubian invasion the Ancient Egyptians imported gold, oil, incense, and ebony, ivory, and exotic animals to the world from Nubia, which in turn increased wealth and stability for the Ancient Egyptians.

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